MTI Biotech

Animal & In Vitro Studies


Influence of feeding the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)...

HMB improved measures of immune function and decreased mortality in young rainbow trout.


The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of...

HMB increased immnoglubulins in spw colostrum (IgG) which resulted in better immunity in the piglets.


Influence of HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate) on antibody secreting cells (ASC) after in...

HMB increased the number of antibody secreting cells (ASC) after vaccination utilizing both in vitro and in vivo vaccination techniques.


In vitro effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on cell-mediated immunity in fish.

HMB was an immunomodulator of fish lymphocytes. HMB increased induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as the respiratory burst and potential killing activities of the lymphocytes.

The leucine metabolite 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (HMB) modifies protein turnover in muscles of...

HMB decreased muscle proteolysis in isolated rat and chicken muscle in vitro which confirms earlier observations of decreased protein degradation in humans undergoing strenuous exercise.

Effect of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle cathepsins and calpain activities...

HMB decreased the activities of proteolytic enzymes activated by dexamethasone.



β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) fed in the water enhances immune response in young broilers

HMB fed in the drinking water was just as effective as HMB fed in feed for improving immune function and reducing mortality of broilers.

The effects of supplemental β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on training and racing thoroughbreds

HMB decreased horse muscle damage and increased aerobic metabolism and performance during actual racing conditions.

Immunomodulating effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the nonspecific cellular and humoral

HMB improved in vitro and in vivo immune function in rainbow trout and carp which resulted in better growth and reduced mortality

In vitro effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on measures of immune function and immunocompet

Siwicki, A.K., P. Ostaszewski, J.C. Fuller, Jr., S. Nissen, and M. Studnicka, 1998 In vitro effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on measures of immune function and immunocompetence in fish, J. Anim. Sci. 76:(Suppl. 1):136
HMB improved in vitro and in vivo immune function in rainbow trout and carp which resulted in better growth and reduced mortality

Abstract not available.

The effect of intensive training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle glycogen...

HMB supplement showed no difference in muscle glycogen concentrations in intensively training horses.

The immunomodulating activity of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) in weanling pigs

HMB improved indicators of immune function in growing pigs by increasing respiratory burst activity, potential killing activity of phagocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, plasma lysozyme activity, and IgG level.

Effect of HMB on fuel utilization, membrane stability, and creatine kinase content of cultured...

HMB can increase oxidative capacity and stabilize muscle cell membranes.

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and 2-oxoisocaproate affect body composition and cholesterol...

HMB reduced body fat and cholesterol in the blood and intestinal tissue of rabbits.

Whole body antioxidant status in young growing rats induced by dexamethasone and the effect of...

HMB was shown to have no effect on glutathione levels following dexamethasone treatment in young rats.


Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on the physiological response to exercise and conditioning...

HMB increased blood glucose and decreased blood triglycerides in response to conditioning.

The effect of intensive training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the physiological response

HMB supplementation to training horses increased endurance and aerobic metabolism as indicated by hematocrit and hemoglobin levels.


Calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. 1. Potential role as a phosphate binder in uremia: in...

Calcium HMB is as efficient as calcium acetate in binding phosphate in vitro which may predict its effective role in vivo. HMB may be effective in lowering phosphate in uremia.


Effects of excess dietary leucine and leucine catabolites on growth and immune responses in...

HMB did not significantly increase immune function in baby pigs; however, a trend toward improved growth was observed in weanling pigs.


The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on growth, mortality, and carcass qualities of...

HMB decreased mortality by up to 72 percent and showed small increases in muscle growth in broiler chickens (summary of five studies conducted at three sites).

Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate on performance and carcass quality of feedlot steers.

HMB decreased subcutaneous fat depots in cattle but increased intramuscular fat in the longissimus muscle.

Colostral milk fat percentage and pig performance are enhanced by feeding the leucine metabolite...

Three studies are summarized and show that feeding HMB increased milk fat percentage, baby pig growth and tended to increase survivability of baby pigs.

Dietary supplementation of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate improves catch-up growth in underfed lambs

HMB improved growth in lambs that had previously limited feed intakes and slower growth rates.

Decreasing male broiler mortality by feeding the leucine catabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

HMB decreased nonspecific mortality during conditions of environmental extremes in male broilers.

The effects of the leucine catabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on the growth and health of growing

HMB improved growth, immune function, and decreased the severity and incidence of a natural pox virus infection in sheep.

Distribution of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate in foods and feeds

HMB is found in most foods in low levels but is four to ten times higher in alfalfa, poultry byproducts, and certain vegetables.

Effect of feeding β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on immune function in stressed calves

HMB fed to calves injected with ACTH partially prevented the resulting cortisol-induced decrease in immune function.


Change in plasma β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) by feeding leucine, alpha-ketoisocaproate...

Feeding leucine and KIC increased plasma HMB levels to that seen when HMB is fed. Feeding IVA also increased HMB suggesting nonoxygenase conversion to HMB.

Uptake and output of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) across the leg of pigs

HMB is produced across the hind legs of pigs when high levels of leucine are fed.

Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on the health and performance of shipping stressed calves

HMB decreased morbidity by 40 percent and mortality by 50 percent in young stressed calves (four studies).


Oxidation of leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate in vivo.

HMB is produced in the body from leucine and KIC in sheep and pigs.


Leucine and its catabolites alter mitogen-stimulated DNA synthesis by bovine lymphocytes.

In vitro leucine was shown to suppress lymphocyte function while HMB tended to increase function. HMB did not substitute for leucine in the media for growth of cells.

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