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The authors examined seven clinical trials, performing a meta-analysis which included data from 147 HMB-supplemented and 140 control supplemented adults over 65 years of age. The results of the meta-analysis showed that HMB supplementation increased lean mass compared with placebo supplementation while no difference in fat mass was found. In conclusion these studies demonstrated the ability of HMB to preserve lean mass in the elderly which could be particularly useful in preventing loss of muscle due to inactivity or other factors.
This brief discussion paper reviews some of the mechanisms associated with the prevention of muscle loss and wasting by supplementation with HMB.
This publication is the International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand on the efficacy of HMB use in sports nutrition and combines a comprehensive review of HMB with the official position of the ISSN on HMB use. The position statements included in this paper were reviewed and approved by the Research Committee of the ISSN. Based upon this comprehensive review of HMB literature, the primary position statements were that HMB enhances muscle recovery by attenuating muscle damage; HMB increases muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in trained and untrained populations when the appropriate exercise protocol is applied; HMB efficacy is manifested in young and old; and HMB is safe to consume.
In this review of data from studies supplementing HMB, 13 studies in healthy trained individuals, 11 studies in healthy untrained individuals, and 9 studies in patients with chronic diseases were examined. The authors concluded that these studies demonstrated the HMB was effective in preventing muscle damage after exercise in both trained and untrained individuals, as well as in preventing muscle loss during chronic disease. Additionally, the authors described the safety profile of HMB supplementation as "unequivocal".
This review discusses studies which have shown that HMB can improve protein turnover and attenuate muscle loss in the elderly and in the clinical setting. The authors suggest a mechanism whereby HMB inhibits inflammation and muscle apoptosis in these populations, as well as improving protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation, which results in increasing lean mass.
This paper reviews the mechanisms of action of HMB and discusses these in relation to the metabolic pathways causing cancer cachexia. The authors conclude that based upon the available literature, HMB may be a potential nutritional component in therapies targeted to attenuate cancer cachexia.
This is the official position paper of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. This review discusses the history of dietary supplements as well as overall nutritional needs of athletes. Research studies are reviewed and ergogenic supplements rated. HMB was rated in the second highest category of possibly effective supplements for muscle building and performance enhancement. This means that HMB has credible studies showing effectiveness for the recommended uses.
This review finds that HMB is one of the safest and supplements for increasing athletic performance. These authors review current studies of HMB use in critical care situations and suggest further studies could show HMB to be of benefit in treating post-intensive care unit weakness.
This independent, peer-reviewed paper discusses the critical details of HMB studies and the variables affecting the results of these studies. Included is a review of the current research showing how HMB works (metabolic mechanisms). This paper concludes that collectively there is not only clinical data, but also mechanistic data supporting HMB's effect on improving body composition and increasing muscle strength.
This review paper discusses dietary supplement and exercise interventions for fraility syndrome in the ederly. Fraility syndrome is a major predictor of decreased health, well-being, and longevity in the elderly. HMB and Vitamin D are the only supplements reviewed in this paper that have been shown to improve strength and balance in randomized, placebo-controlled studies with elderly subjects.
Studies reviewed showed HMB may be beneficial in increasing lean mass in a number of groups (AIDS and cancer patients as well as athletes). No study has shown adverse effects of HMB as have been seen with other supplement regimens.